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Views on globalization[ edit ] The Arab and Muslim intellectuals[ edit ] Cultural identity is at great value in the Middle East. For this reason, Arab and Muslim intellectuals have been deeply concerned about maintaining their cultural identity and independence in the face of globalization, especially as it is seen by most as equivalent to Americanization.
The second group of Arab thinkers welcomes globalization as the age of modern science, advanced technology and global communications. There is also a minority who strongly advocates globalization. Fuad Zakariya, an Egyptian professor of philosophy, is amongst them. He argues that those who oppose globalization in fact do not understand its meaning and implications fully and reminds his compatriots that there are certain problems that can only be tackled at a global level.
The Jihadists[ edit ] Radical Islamists view globalization as a new dawah call for the elimination of the boundaries between Dar al-Islam domain of Islam and Dar al-Kufr domain of infidelity.
The inability to separate religious and mundane matters or religion and state  has therefore created resistance and rigidity which at times has culminated in a defensive call for a fight against the enemy. Globalized organizations inspired by globalization are now fighting against it.
Human rightsfreedom and democracy are perceived as hidden instruments of power which serve the interests of Western nations, and of Americain particular. The key reason for the rejection  may be the lack of previous cultural penetration of the Islamic Middle East by Western cultureinstitutions and ideas.
In this context globalization was seen as a form of surrender to a dominant, non-indigenous standpoint. It has a powerful and cohesive community which at times acts like a cultural defence wall  against the Western influence and, as a result, limits the use of European languages in the Middle East.
The rejection of globalization also appeared due to the political systems that governed the Middle East. Repression and demagoguery were some of the tools used to convince the masses that anti-globalization was the only way of defending the Arab nation and Islam.
People were thus discouraged from supporting elements of globalization like democracy, free enterprise, civil and human rights. It has made itself impossible to ignore and was at the very cause of an anti- Western movement and an international Jihad.
Rather than reflecting a specific ideologyterrorism represents nostalgia for pre-modern civilisation and has been the result of a clash between modernization and tradition. Much more than being against the West, Muslims are interested in re-establishing an Islamic unity and incorporating Western technology and science into Islam.
While some critics argue that the Arab world is opposing globalization some others feel that it has strengthened Islamic fundamentalism by facilitating extensive networks of formerly dissociated Muslims.
The increase in the flow of information, communication and mobility has served Muslim fundamentalism but in a different way from the West.
Whereas the latter is more profit —driven, the Islamists ideal of a globalized society is a network-connection of all Muslims in order to promote their definition of the world.
One of the goals of immigration is the revival of the duty of Jihad and enforcement of their power over the infidels. Immigration and Jihad go together: The continuance of the one is dependent upon the continuation of the other. Islamist movements are themselves the driving forces behind globalization  influencing its direction and final outcome.
Prior to the changes that accompanied globalization each community had the opportunity to determine its own interpretation of the Islamic message, whereas now the norms are increasingly imposed by conservative Islamic groups.
We are now experiencing an extremely complex phenomenon which both divides and unifies the world we live in. The circulation of commodities, technology, money and ideas facilitate networks of terror as well as trade and travel. Technological achievements, capital mobility and free movement of people that resulted from the process thus allowed terrorism to express its local grievances and attack key symbols of American power in a way that had never been done before.
According to Hinnebusch  it is no accident that the Middle East has witnessed by far the highest number of international terrorist incidents, or that the US is increasingly becoming the target for these attacks.
In her book, Laura Guazzone  points out the paradox of US hegemony in the region: Global terrorism and terror events were made possible due to the availability of new powerful and sometimes lethal technology to groups and individuals that previously had no or restricted access to.
Conventional instruments of mass transport or communication have been, and can be at any time converted into weapons of mass destructionor at least of mass terror producing a situation of asymmetrical war  where weaker individuals and groups can attack superpowers.
This led to a general increase in fear and anxiety and September 11 was probably the most powerful alarm towards the danger that globalization carries within: A good example of this is Iranwhere attempts to block foreign influences have often not succeeded. Still, given the incompatibility that characterizes the two views, neither Islamic terrorists nor the West can come to an intellectual compromise.
The war polarised regimes and Islamist oppositions not only in Saudi Arabia but also in AlgeriaEgypt and Tunisiacountries where the freedom scores diminished the most in the last couple of years.
Their understanding of the concept of globalization will continue to be affected by negative factors like high illiteracy rates, marginalization of women, disparities between rich and poor, corrupt authoritarian regimes and the absence of democracy and human rights  It may be the case that the next generation will be even more closed after experiencing much more intense and systematic indoctrination on both the Islamist and nationalist fronts.
They may focus on the shortcomings of the Western system and fear the effects of such ideas or institutions in their own countries.The name ‘Middle East’ needs to be clearly defined worldwide because of the controversy that the name ‘Middle East’ evokes among the people.
In fact, it is thought by some people that such name as the Middle East does not exist. The superpowers played a vital role in bringing change in the Middle East, although this change was not always necessarily good. There are key example of Superpowers contributing war, but equally the superpowers also restricted war as well.
Middle East Conflict Essay Words | 4 Pages. area known as the Middle East since shifts in global power over the years have affected the topography. © Middle East Eye - all rights reserved. Only England and Wales jurisdiction apply in all legal matters. POL International Politics of the Middle East Term Paper 2 The reliability of Middle East alliances—why did allies fulfill/fail to fulfill their treaty obligations.
The enemy of my enemy is my friend. Does this principle apply to patterns of. Because of a number of elements, the Middle East found itself profoundly changed after World War I.
Although this was the case for many countries, the region experienced it most keenly as a result of not only its own internal conflicts, but also because of the conflicting drives of the countries that won the war.