However, although Engels wrote in the s, his book was not translated into English until the late s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then.
Liberated from many of the restraints of the past by the French, Napoleonic, and Industrial revolutions, most Europeans made the transition from a society based on agriculture to a modern urban society. The spectacular growth of the industrial sector makes it easy to overlook the great strides in food production during the nineteenth century.
Because of the improved global transportation network and better farming methods, the expanding number of city dwellers had more and better food to eat in than they had had in It is estimated that in around 60 percent of the money and 85 percent of the Europeans were tied to farming.
These large quantities of capital and labor were not effectively used, because the advances made in Holland and Britain in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries had not spread to the continent.
However, progressive landowners gradually introduced these improved methods when they saw the money to be made feeding the growing population of the cities. By the end of the nineteenth century farmers on the continent were plowing new lands and using higher yielding crop varieties to survive in the worldwide agricultural competition.
Industrial nations such as Britain, in which only 10 percent of the population was engaged in farming, imported more than a fourth of their food.
Farmers in the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand competed with each other in the cutthroat export market. The peasants of Ireland and southern and eastern Europe were unable to produce efficiently enough to prosper in this new setting.
Russia, where the peasantry comprised 70 percent of the population, had to export to bring in foreign capital to finance industrialization. When the country had to compete with efficient foreign farmers, the tsarist minister of finance stated, "we may go hungry, but we will export.
Vyshnegradsky, quoted in William L. Blackwell, The Industrialization of Russia: An Historical Perspective New York: Crowell,p. Malthus asserted that human reproduction could easily outrun the earth's ability to produce food.
From this evidence he concluded that the inevitable fate of humanity was misery and ruin, since the number of people would rise geometrically while food supply would grow only arithmetically. The experience of the next two centuries has at least temporarily disproved Malthus' thesis.
Fernand Braudel, Capitalism and Material Life: Columbia University Press,p. The number of people grew so rapidly in Europe that although 40 million Europeans emigrated throughout the world, the continent still showed a population increase in one century that was greater than that of the previous two thousand years.
Where the economies were advanced, such as in northern and western Europe, the population growth could be absorbed.
But in the poorer countries of southern and eastern Europe, the masses faced the choices of overcrowding and starvation or emigration. The Ties That Bind: New Networks To bring the increased food supply to the growing population, to distribute new resources to larger markets, and to connect augmented capital with essential information, Europeans built the most complete and far-reaching transportation and communication networks ever known.
Without rapid and dependable transport and contact the Industrial Revolution could not have occurred, cities would not have grown, factories could not have functioned, and the new millions of Europeans would not have been fed. The new networks became the arteries and nervous system of Europe.
The Duke of Bridgewater made a major step forward in water transportation in when he built a seven and one-half mile long canal from his mines to Manchester. Water transport cut the price of his coal in half and gave Britain a vivid lesson in the benefits of canals.
Nearly four thousand miles of improved rivers and canals were built, with strong governmental support by the s, making it possible to ship most of the country's products by water.
The first project cut the sailing time between London and Bombay India by nearly half, while the second did away with the need to sail around South America to reach the Pacific Ocean.
Until most roads were muddy, rutted paths that were impassable during spring thaws and autumn rains. In that year a Scotsman, John McAdam, created the all-weather road by placing small stones in compact layers directly on the road bed.
The pressure of the traffic moving over the highway packed the stones together to give a fairly smooth surface. This practical solution cut the stagecoach time for the miles from London to Sheffield from four days in the s to 28 hours.
Steam-powered vessels replaced the graceful though less dependable sailing ships in ocean commerce. Clipper ships are among the most beautiful objects ever built, but they could not move without wind. Sturdy, awkward-looking steamships carried larger cargo with greater regularity and revolutionized world trade.Although the industrialization of Manchester was necessary for the development of the modern world, it had also brought up a lot of issues with it.
Technological advancements, Health of the citizens, and poor working conditions became major issues raised by the growth of Manchester, and people reacted to these issues in both negative and .
About articles, of which: About full-length scientific pieces, of which 17 were co-authored; 57 of the self-authored pieces were refereed, 45 were invited (in edited volumes, for example).
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Martin’s Press, Tor Books, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, Henry Holt, Picador, Flatiron Books, Celadon Books, and Macmillan . - Manchester DBQ During the nineteenth century, Manchester, England became an increasingly industrialized city, and its population rose considerably.
Although the industrialization of Manchester was extremely successful for the modernization of society, Manchester’s growth also raised many problems in society.
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Utilizing state of the art digital printing, we produce product packaging. The spread of industrialization rapidly altered and changed the city of Manchester during the nineteenth century.
Of course there were positive effects that stemmed from this, but negative effects due to the growth of industrialization outnumbered the positive outcomes and are often overshadowed.