Origin[ edit ] Some of the first humanists were great collectors of antique manuscriptsincluding PetrarchGiovanni BoccaccioColuccio Salutatiand Poggio Bracciolini.
Origin[ edit ] Some of the first humanists were great collectors of antique manuscriptsincluding PetrarchGiovanni BoccaccioColuccio Salutatiand Poggio Bracciolini. Of the four, Petrarch was dubbed the "Father of Humanism" because of his devotion or loyalty to Greek and Roman scrolls.
Many worked for the Catholic Church and were in holy orderslike Petrarch, while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities, and thus had access to book copying workshops, such as Petrarch's disciple Salutatithe Chancellor of Florence.
In Italy, the humanist educational program won rapid acceptance and, by the midth century, many of the upper classes had received humanist educations, possibly in addition to traditional scholasticist ones.
Some of the highest officials of the Catholic Church were humanists with the resources to amass important libraries. Such was Cardinal Basilios Bessariona convert to the Catholic Church from Greek Orthodoxywho was considered for the papacyand was one of the most learned scholars of his time.
Italian humanism spread northward to FranceGermanythe Low Countriesand England with the adoption of large-scale printing after the end of the era of incunabula or books printed prior toand it became associated with the Protestant Reformation.
Paganism and Christianity in the Renaissance[ edit ] This section is too long to read comfortably, and needs subsections. Please format the article according to the guidelines laid out in the Manual of Style.
The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy describes the rationalism of ancient writings as having tremendous impact on Renaissance scholars: Here, one felt no weight of the supernatural pressing on the human mind, demanding homage and allegiance.
Humanity—with all its distinct capabilities, talents, worries, problems, possibilities—was the center of interest.
It has been said that medieval thinkers philosophised on their knees, but, bolstered by the new studies, they dared to stand up and to rise to full stature.
Infor example, Poggio Bracciolini discovered the manuscript of LucretiusDe rerum naturawhich had been lost for centuries and which contained an explanation of Epicurean doctrinethough at the time this was not commented on much by Renaissance scholars, who confined themselves to remarks about Lucretius's grammar and syntax.
And if it is names that bother us, no one better deserves the name of Epicurean than the revered founder and head of the Christian philosophy Christfor in Greek epikouros means "helper. Completely mistaken, therefore, are those who talk in their foolish fashion about Christ's having been sad and gloomy in character and calling upon us to follow a dismal mode of life.
On the contrary, he alone shows the most enjoyable life of all and the one most full of true pleasure. Renaissance Neo-Platonists such as Marsilio Ficino whose translations of Plato's works into Latin were still used into the 19th century attempted to reconcile Platonism with Christianity, according to the suggestions of early Church fathers Lactantius and Saint Augustine.
In this spirit, Pico della Mirandola attempted to construct a syncretism of all religions he was not a humanist[ clarification needed ] but an Aristotelian trained in Parisbut his work did not win favor with the church authorities. Historian Steven Kreis expresses a widespread view derived from the 19th-century Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardtwhen he writes that: The period from the fourteenth century to the seventeenth worked in favor of the general emancipation of the individual.
The city-states of northern Italy had come into contact with the diverse customs of the East, and gradually permitted expression in matters of taste and dress. The writings of Dante, and particularly the doctrines of Petrarch and humanists like Machiavelli, emphasized the virtues of intellectual freedom and individual expression.
In the essays of Montaigne the individualistic view of life received perhaps the most persuasive and eloquent statement in the history of literature and philosophy. Of these two, Hermeticism has had great continuing influence in Western thought, while the former mostly dissipated as an intellectual trend, leading to movements in Western esotericism such as Theosophy and New Age thinking.
Though humanists continued to use their scholarship in the service of the church into the middle of the sixteenth century and beyond, the sharply confrontational religious atmosphere following the Protestant reformation resulted in the Counter-Reformation that sought to silence challenges to Catholic theology with similar efforts among the Protestant denominations.
However, a number of humanists joined the Reformation movement and took over leadership functions, for example, Philipp MelanchthonUlrich ZwingliJohn Calvinand William Tyndale. With the Counter Reformation initiated by the Council of Trentpositions hardened and a strict Catholic orthodoxy based on Scholastic philosophy was imposed.
Some humanists, even moderate Catholics such as Erasmus, risked being declared heretics for their perceived criticism of the church.Renaissance humanism was used to differentiate the development of humanism during the Renaissance era from the earlier ones.
Classical humanism was developed to respond to the utilitarian approach associated with the medieval scholars.
Education during the Renaissance was mainly composed of ancient literature and history as it was thought that the classics provided moral instruction and an intensive understanding of human behavior.
Renaissance humanism flourished in the early 16th century. The Humanism of the Renaissance Humanism (the philosophy that people are rational beings) became quite popular during the Renaissance. The dignity and worth of the individual was emphasized.
This movement originated with the study of classical culture and a group of subjects known collectively as the “studia humanitatis”, or the humanities.
Although it was originally thought that the Renaissance was a period during which women achieved a greater degree of equality with men, the assumption has been challenged by modern writers claiming that even women in the upper classes still held only limited roles in Renaissance society.
In spite of. Renaissance Humanism—named to differentiate it from the Humanism that came later—was an intellectual movement that originated in the 13th century and came to dominate European thought during the Renaissance, which it played a considerable role in kaja-net.com the core of Renaissance Humanism was using the study of classical texts to alter contemporary thinking, breaking with the medieval.
Humanism in art Renaissance artists started to be much more interested in the human form. Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, who worked for the Pope and made superb religious works, nevertheless promoted an interest in the human figure, since they made detailed sketches of the torso, working from real models.