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After the British had departed and the state of Israel had been established on May 15,under the premiership of David Ben-Gurion, the Palestine Arab forces and foreign volunteers were joined by regular armies of Transjordan now the kingdom of JordanIraq, Lebanon, and Syria, with token support from Saudi Arabia.
Efforts by the UN to halt the fighting were unsuccessful until June 1, when a 4-week truce was declared. When the Arab states refused to renew the truce, ten more days fighting erupted. In that time Israel greatly extended the area under its control and broke the siege of Jerusalem.
Fighting on a smaller scale continued during the second UN truce beginning in mid-July, and Israel acquired more territory, especially in Galilee and Modern middle east essay Negev. By Januarywhen the last battles ended, Israel has extended its frontiers by about 5, sq.
It had also secured its independence. The armistice frontiers were unofficial boundaries until Border conflicts between Israel and the Arabs continued despite provisions in the armistice agreements for peace negotiations. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arabs who had left Israeli-held territory during the first war concentrated in refugee camps along Israels frontiers and became a major source of friction when they infiltrated back to their homes or attacked Israeli border settlements.
A major tension point was the Egyptian-controlled Gaza Strip, which was used by arab guerrillas for raids into southern Israel. Great Britain and France strenuously objected to Nassers policies, and a joint military campaign was planned against Egypt with the understanding that Israel would take the initiative by seizing the Sinai Peninsula.
The war began on October 29,after an announcement that the armies of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan were to be integrated under the Egyptian commander in chief. Israels Operation Kadesh, commanded by Moshe Dayan, lasted less than a week; its forces reached the eastern bank of the Suez Canal in about hoursseizing the Gaza Strip and nearly all the Sinai Peninsula.
The Sinai operations were supplemented by an Anglo-French invasion of Egypt on November 5, giving the allies control of the northern sector of the Suez Canal.
The war was halted by a UN General Assembly resolution calling for an immediate cease-fire and withdrawal of all occupying forces from Egyptian territory. By December 22 the last British and French Troops had left Egypt, Israel, however, delayed withdrawal, insisting than it receives security guarantees against further Egyptian attack.
After several additional UN resolutions calling for withdrawal and after pressure from the United States, Israels forces left in March Relations between Israel and Egypt remained fairly stable in the following decade.
The Suez Canal remained closed to Israeli shipping, the Arab boycott of Israel was maintained, and periodic clashes occurred between Israel, Syria, and Jordan.
By the Arab confrontation states-Egypt, Syria, and Jordan-became impatient with the status quo, the propaganda war with Israel escalated, and border incidents increased dangerously. President Nasser also announced that the Gulf of Aqaba would be closed again to Israeli shipping.
At the end of May, Egypt and Jordan signed a new defense pact placing Jordans armed forces under Egyptian command. Efforts to de-escalate the crisis were of no availability Israeli and Egyptian leaders visited the United States, but President Lyndon Johnsons attempts tp persuade Western powers to guarantee free passage through the Gulf failed.
By the evening of June 6, Israel had destroyed the combat effectiveness of the major Arab air forces, destroying more than planes and losing only 26 of its own. Israel also swept into Sinai, reaching the Suez Canal and occupying most of the peninsula in less than four King Hussein of Jordan rejected an offer of neutrality and opened fire on Israeli forces in Jerusalem on June 5.
As the war ended on the Jordanian and Egyptian fronts, Israel opened an attack on Syria in the north.Middle-East History Essay; Middle-East History Essay. Flavors of the Middle East.
Homosexuality in Modern Day Middle East Abstract Homosexual marriage is a public concept that should be acknowledged in the Middle East.
Yet the idea can’t be acknowledged without a few key phases. 68 BIBLIOGRAPHIC ESSAY Christian Traditions in the Contemporary Middle East: A Bibliographic Essay by Matthew Baker Matthew Baker is Collection Services Librarian, The Burke Theological Library at Union Theological Seminary.
History of the Modern Middle East Cleveland/Bunton Chapter Terms Husni al-Za'im Overthrew the Syrian president and then was immediately overthrown as well. The Middle East region of the world is a good example of why religious tolerance alone cannot and will not reduce religious-based conflict.
To the contrary, it gives the paramount support for the Center’s approach, going beyond tolerance to attack this problem. The Middle East has been a subject of controversy for centuries. The religious and political atmosphere in the region has always been tense.
The religious and cultural differences of the inhabitants of the Middle East have led to the formation of numerous factions. Lewis stirred a great deal of controversy with key texts such as The Shaping of the Modern Middle East ().
Positions similar to that of Lewis were adopted by .