The importance of these factors will vary from product to product and market to market. And over time, customers or users of a product will demand more and more, e.
Stepping exercise resulted in a CK serum increase in women at day 3, whereas, there was no significant increase in CK serum levels in men performing the same protocol see Figure 3 c.
The duration of the ten-rep max for elbow flexion for each subject was recorded with a chronometer in order to standardise exercise in both land and water environments and induce the same energy-generating metabolic pathways.
Subjects executed as many maximal effort contractions as possible for each set performing three sets in both environments with two-minute rest between sets; each environment session land or water was separated by four weeks. A significant increase in serum CK was observed at 48 hours after exercise on land, and no significant change in baseline serum CK levels occurred in water.
No further samples were taken after this time. The main mechanism hypothesised to have attenuated muscle damage in water was reduced eccentric contractions [ 70 ].
There are difficulties in comparing exercise intensity and work volume in land and water [ 7172 ]. Standardisation of exercise between water and land is challenging due to the differing conditions in water compared to air resistance, temperature, and hydrostatic pressure.
The significance of exercise modality on CK serum response appears to be related to the magnitude of eccentric contractions involved in the activity and the subsequent extent of muscle disruption. Greater muscle cell disturbance delays the appearance of a CK serum peak compared to less disruption.
This may be linked to the time course of inflammation; however, evidence in the literature supporting this theory remains unclear. Conclusion The molecular mechanisms that result in CK release from muscle after mild exercise are unclear.
More clarification could provide important information for athletes concerned about muscle hypertrophy, performance, and the importance of rest periods between periods of exercise. Future studies should include an exploration of ethnic variations in CK response to exercise.
In the absence of any mechanical muscle damage, it remains a question as to whether raised CK after exercise does represent a degree of actual muscle damage or some form of disruption in energy control processes or some other molecular reaction mechanism.
Since muscle tissue cannot ignore brain centred nerve stimulations causing increase in both the number of motor units recruited and the frequency of motor unit stimulation, as well as creation of longer tetanic contractions, it would seem logical that muscle would have some mechanism of moderation to delay the final sanction of fatigue for as long as possible.
Although PCr resynthesis is greatly diminished during high-intensity exercise, AMPK may still be required to maintain the ratio. It is speculated here that the control involves expulsion of CK from the cytosol see Figure 3. If this is the case, then increased serum CK levels arising from normal physical exercise may be a consequence of normal metabolic activity rather than representative of physical damage to muscle.
Such a system would not act in isolation but as part of a sophisticated process involving other regulatory functions in the muscle, and only when the full integrated system is understood will it be possible to explain the many anomalies associated with muscle action.
Unfortunately, it has not been possible from the available literature to extract more definitive evidence for this suggestion. The considerable variability across many studies makes interpretation more difficult, and it is clear that the lack of agreed guideline procedures and defined parameters for the conduct and evaluation of exercise-based experimental work in this area is a major barrier to the greater understanding of the influence of exercise on muscle and human health in general.
The establishment of an international committee on exercise-based experimental and laboratory protocols may be beneficial.
Such a committee could provide leadership, clarity, and standardisation that would enable researchers to effectively answer related experimental questions. Conflict of Interests The authors have no conflicts of interests that are directly relevant to the content of this paper.The stepSA website stepSA is aimed at supporting practitioners within municipal planning processes, as well as decision-makers in sector departments concerned with long term infrastructure investment implications and prioritisation.
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