How to write a cradle to grave analysis of paper

Because of these injuries, it would be a difficult adjustment for one to not be able to move as they once did.

How to write a cradle to grave analysis of paper

Agri-footprint Comprehensive Environmental Data Archive CEDA [24] Calculations for impact can then be done by hand, but it is more usual to streamline the process by using software.

This can range from a simple spreadsheet, where the user enters the data manually to a fully automated program, where the user is not aware of the source data.

For example, trees produce paper, which can be recycled into low-energy production cellulose fiberised paper insulationthen used as an energy-saving device in the ceiling of a home for 40 years, saving 2, times the fossil-fuel energy used in its production.

After 40 years the cellulose fibers are replaced and the old fibers are disposed of, possibly incinerated.

how to write a cradle to grave analysis of paper

All inputs and outputs are considered for all the phases of the life cycle. The use phase and disposal phase of the product are omitted in this case.

Cradle-to-gate assessments are sometimes the basis for environmental product declarations EPD termed business-to-business EDPs. This allows the LCA to collect all of the impacts leading up to resources being purchased by the facility. They can then add the steps involved in their transport to plant and manufacture process to more easily produce their own cradle-to-gate values for their products.

Cradle to Cradle Design Cradle-to-cradle is a specific kind of cradle-to-grave assessment, where the end-of-life disposal step for the product is a recycling process. It is a method used to minimize the environmental impact of products by employing sustainable production, operation, and disposal practices and aims to incorporate social responsibility into product development.

Various methods, such as the avoided burden approach have been proposed to deal with the issues involved. Gate-to-gate modules may also later be linked in their appropriate production chain to form a complete cradle-to-gate evaluation.

The analysis is often broken down into stages entitled "well-to-station", or "well-to-tank", and "station-to-wheel" or "tank-to-wheel", or "plug-to-wheel". The first stage, which incorporates the feedstock or fuel production and processing and fuel delivery or energy transmission, and is called the "upstream" stage, while the stage that deals with vehicle operation itself is sometimes called the "downstream" stage.

The well-to-wheel analysis is commonly used to assess total energy consumption, or the energy conversion efficiency and emissions impact of marine vesselsaircraft and motor vehiclesincluding their carbon footprintand the fuels used in each of these transport modes.

The well-to-wheel variant has a significant input on a model developed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The model evaluates the impacts of fuel use using a well-to-wheel evaluation while a traditional cradle-to-grave approach is used to determine the impacts from the vehicle itself.

The model reports energy use, greenhouse gas emissionsand six additional pollutants: Additionally the translation of economic quantities into environmental impacts is not validated. It was designed to provide a guide to wise management of human activities by understanding the direct and indirect impacts on ecological resources and surrounding ecosystems.

Developed by Ohio State University Center for resilience, Eco-LCA is a methodology that quantitatively takes into account regulating and supporting services during the life cycle of economic goods and products. In this approach services are categorized in four main groups: This exergetic material input per unit of service EMIPS has been elaborated for transport technology.

The service not only takes into account the total mass to be transported and the total distance, but also the mass per single transport and the delivery time.

how to write a cradle to grave analysis of paper

An earlier term for the approach was energy analysis. Net energy content is the energy content of the product minus energy input used during extraction and conversiondirectly or indirectly.

From the Cradle to the Grave

A controversial early result of LCEA claimed that manufacturing solar cells requires more energy than can be recovered in using the solar cell[ citation needed ].Cradle to grave analysis (also known as a life cycle assessment) collects, evaluates, and interprets data associated with the environmental impact of a firm.

There are five steps in a .

From the Cradle to the Grave Every year, one-third of people over the age of 65 falls, and of those people, % sustains injuries that effect mobility and independence (Rural Institute, ). Because of these injuries, it would be a difficult adjustment for one to not be able to move as they once did. Home > Cradle to grave system essay. Cradle to grave system essay descriptive essay smartctl output analysis essay ancient chinese contributions essay writing essay about sir edmund hillary clinton best research paper writer on our own terms essay dead rising 3 vehicle blueprint map essay melatonin and the pineal gland essay writing essay. and writing (P&W) papers. The specific products examined are: 1) a ream of office paper made of uncoated freesheet; 2) a telephone directory made primarily of uncoated mechanical paper; 3) a catalog made primarily of coated freesheet; and 4) a magazine made primarily of coated mechanical paper.

Dec 19,  · •Cradle to Grave: Considers everything from harvesting materials to the disposal of the finished goods 4. Life Cycle Analysis for Pulp and Paper Products • Paper is a measure of the quality of life of a society • Paper is mainly derived from renewable resources.

While the entire life-cycle impact of a product is captured in the “cradle-to-grave” system boundary (raw material extraction through final disposal), “cradle-to-gate” analysis isolates the impacts from raw material extraction through production of the paper, but not including the end product production.

The paper describes a cradle to grave embodied carbon & energy tool for buildings.

Life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling. Cradle to grave analysis (also known as a life cycle assessment) collects, evaluates, and interprets data associated with the environmental impact of a firm. There are five steps in a . While the entire life-cycle impact of a product is captured in the “cradle-to-grave” system boundary (raw material extraction through final disposal), “cradle-to-gate” analysis isolates the impacts from raw material extraction through production of the paper, but not including the end product production.

The paper has further shown that analysis of whole life embodied energy and carbon of buildings within the UK is considerably restricted by the lack of data. The main gaps are in the manufacturers’ data for cradle-to-gate (modules A) impacts of specific.

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This one-page guide includes a plot summary and brief analysis of Cradle To Cradle by William McDonough, Michael Braungart. Companies are starting to grasp this, and Cradle to Cradle is one blueprint for how they, and the rest of us, can profit from that consciousness.

Life-cycle assessment - Wikipedia