That Egyptian doctors performed pregnancy tests, determined the sex of an unborn child, fed nourishment through tubes, and fitted artificial legs and hands? That they used anaesthetic and sophisticated instruments to perform bone and brain surgery?
Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare"We speak from facts not theory".
Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. Flavio Biondoan Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology.
Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camdenconducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing, describing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
First excavations[ edit ] An early photograph of Stonehenge taken July One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey — was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England.
He was also ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture, costume, and shield-shapes. These excavations began in in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescoshad a big impact throughout Europe.
However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington — Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrowsand the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William SmithJames Hutton and Charles Lyell.
The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites.
A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologistAugustus Pitt Rivers who began excavations on his land in England in the s. His approach was highly methodical by the standards of the time, and he is widely regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or " typologicallyand within types by date or "chronologically". This style of arrangement, designed to highlight the evolutionary trends in human artifacts, was of enormous significance for the accurate dating of the objects.
His most important methodological innovation was his insistence that all artifacts, not just beautiful or unique ones, be collected and catalogued. His painstaking recording and study of artifacts, both in Egypt and later in Palestinelaid down many of the ideas behind modern archaeological recording; he remarked that "I believe the true line of research lies in the noting and comparison of the smallest details.
Petrie was the first to scientifically investigate the Great Pyramid in Egypt during the s. Mortimer Wheeler pioneered systematic excavation in the early 20th century.
Pictured, are his excavations at Maiden Castle, Dorsetin October These scholars individuated nine different cities that had overlapped with one another, from prehistory to the Hellenistic period. Wheeler developed the grid system of excavationwhich was further improved by his student Kathleen Kenyon.
Archaeology became a professional activity in the first half of the 20th century, and it became possible to study archaeology as a subject in universities and even schools.
By the end of the 20th century nearly all professional archaeologists, at least in developed countries, were graduates.
Further adaptation and innovation in archaeology continued in this period, when maritime archaeology and urban archaeology became more prevalent and rescue archaeology was developed as a result of increasing commercial development.
The Child was an infant of the Australopithecus africanus species, an early form of hominin The purpose of archaeology is to learn more about past societies and the development of the human race.
Without such written sources, the only way to understand prehistoric societies is through archaeology.Please help us to protect the environment by recycling this paper when you are finished.
The Fur Trade and Historical Archaeology: A Bibliography Bibliographies | Reference Books | Companies Doing Historical Archaeology | Funding Sources | | Library | Historical Archaeology Links | Historical Archaeology Discussion Lists | Historic Maps | Email | Compiled By Michael A.
Pfeiffer This Version: 13 January For Correction, Comments, or additions, please contact. The Seventy Great Mysteries of the Ancient World: Unlocking the Secrets of Past Civilizations 0th Edition.
Michael Cremo's Academic Papers Los Angeles November 16, is the release date for Michael A.
Cremo's newest work entitled My Science, My Religion.A collection of 24 papers that he has presented at academic conferences over the past 18 years, this collection offers a rare perspective of his synthesis of science and religion.
Archaeology Answers About Ancient Civilizations Indus River Valley, Ancient Maps of the World, Ancient India Civilizations, Ancient China Civilization, Strange . Addington, J.
Steven () Building Sequences at the Quartermaster Depot, Vancouver Barracks from to Reports in Highway Archaeology Seattle.