An introduction to the history of arab continents

Islam is the dominant religion in the area and almost everyone speaks Arabic.

An introduction to the history of arab continents

Asia Minor[41] The first distinction between continents was made by ancient Greek mariners who gave the names Europe and Asia to the lands on either side of the waterways of the Aegean Seathe Dardanelles strait, the Sea of Marmarathe Bosporus strait and the Black Sea.

Division into three parts eventually came to predominate.

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Herodotus [47] in the 5th century BC, however, objected to the unity of Egypt being split into Asia and Africa "Libya" and took the boundary to lie along the western border of Egypt, regarding Egypt as part of Asia.

He also questioned the division into three of what is really a single landmass, [48] a debate that continues nearly two and a half millennia later. Eratosthenesin the 3rd century BC, noted that some geographers divided the continents by rivers the Nile and the Donthus considering them "islands".

Others divided the continents by isthmusescalling the continents "peninsulas". These latter geographers set the border between Europe and Asia at the isthmus between the Black Sea and the Caspian Seaand the border between Asia and Africa at the isthmus between the Red Sea and the mouth of Lake Bardawil on the Mediterranean Sea.

Through the Roman period and the Middle Agesa few writers took the Isthmus of Suez as the boundary between Asia and Africa, but most writers continued to consider it the Nile or the western border of Egypt Gibbon [ citation needed ].

In the Middle Ages, the world was usually portrayed on T and O mapswith the T representing the waters dividing the three continents. By the middle of the 18th century, "the fashion of dividing Asia and Africa at the Nile, or at the Great Catabathmus [the boundary between Egypt and Libya ] farther west, had even then scarcely passed away".

But despite four voyages to the Americas, Columbus never believed he had reached a new continent—he always thought it was part of Asia. After reaching the coast of Brazilthey sailed a long way further south along the coast of South Americaconfirming that this was a land of continental proportions and that it also extended much further south than Asia was known to.

Within a few years, the name "New World" began appearing as a name for South America on world maps, such as the Oliveriana Pesaro map of around — Maps of this time though, still showed North America connected to Asia and showed South America as a separate land.

A small inset map above the main map explicitly showed for the first time the Americas being east of Asia and separated from Asia by an ocean, as opposed to just placing the Americas on the left end of the map and Asia on the right end. The word continent From the 16th century the English noun continent was derived from the term continent land, meaning continuous or connected land [56] and translated from the Latin terra continens.

Thus Europe, Asia, and Africa is one great continent, as America is another. Hollandia Nova, map prepared by Joan Blaeu based on voyages by Abel Tasman and Willem Janszthis image shows a French edition of Beyond four continents From the late 18th century, some geographers started to regard North America and South America as two parts of the world, making five parts in total.

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Overall though, the fourfold division prevailed well into the 19th century. By the late 18th century, some geographers considered it a continent in its own right, making it the sixth or fifth for those still taking America as a single continent. However, it was still not uncommon for American atlases to treat them as one continent up until World War II.

Geology This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Further information: Continental crust and Plate tectonics Geologists use the term continent in a different manner from geographers.

In geology a continent is defined by continental crust: The craton itself is an accretionary complex of ancient mobile belts mountain belts from earlier cycles of subductioncontinental collision and break-up from plate tectonic activity.

An outward-thickening veneer of younger minimally deformed sedimentary rock covers much of the craton. The margins of geologic continents are characterized by currently active or relatively recently active mobile belts and deep troughs of accumulated marine or deltaic sediments.

Beyond the margin, there is either a continental shelf and drop off to the basaltic ocean basin or the margin of another continent, depending on the current plate-tectonic setting of the continent. A continental boundary does not have to be a body of water. Over geologic time, continents are periodically submerged under large epicontinental seas, and continental collisions result in a continent becoming attached to another continent.

The current geologic era is relatively anomalous in that so much of the continental areas are "high and dry"; that is, many parts of the continents that were once below sea level are now elevated well above it due to changes in sea levels and the subsequent uplifting of those continental areas from tectonic activity.

This accounts for the great age of the rocks comprising the continental cratons. By this definition, Eastern Europe, India and some other regions could be regarded as continental masses distinct from the rest of Eurasia because they have separate ancient shield areas i.

East European craton and Indian craton. Younger mobile belts such as the Ural Mountains and Himalayas mark the boundaries between these regions and the rest of Eurasia. There are many microcontinents, or continental fragmentsthat are built of continental crust but do not contain a craton.

Some of these are fragments of Gondwana or other ancient cratonic continents: Other islands, such as several in the Caribbean Seaare composed largely of granitic rock as well, but all continents contain both granitic and basaltic crust, and there is no clear boundary as to which islands would be considered microcontinents under such a definition.

The Kerguelen Plateaufor example, is largely volcanic, but is associated with the breakup of Gondwanaland and is considered a microcontinent, [66] [67] whereas volcanic Iceland and Hawaii are not.ARAB CIVILIZATION.

Introduction to the Arab World.

Middle East and North Africa Resources

The Arab homeland stretches some 5, miles— nearly twice the distance between New York and San Francisco—from the Atlantic coast of northern Africa in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to Central Africa in the south.

The Middle East and North Africa are two regions that are often grouped together because they have many things in common. Islam is the dominant religion in the area and almost everyone speaks Arabic. Most of the Middle East and North Africa is composed of desert land where very little rain falls.

Eastern Africa can also be divided into several regions. The northern mountainous area, known as the Horn of Africa, comprises Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia. In the east is the arid Somali desert.

An introduction to the history of arab continents

Did the invention of the stirrup, a utilitarian piece of horse tack for horse riders around the world today but unknown in the ancient world, revolutionize mounted warfare and even pave the way for the feudal system of the Middle Ages?

JEDDAH: Monday witnessed the introduction of penguins in Saudi Arabia for the first time, at Fakieh Aquarium in Jeddah. “We’re delighted to bring the first-ever group of penguins to Saudi. The bow and arrow are known to have been invented by the end of the Upper Paleolithic, and for at least 10, years archery was an important military and hunting skill, and features prominently in the mythologies of many cultures..

Archers, whether on foot, in chariots or on horseback were a major part of most militaries until about when they began to be replaced by firearms, first in.

The Middle East and North Africa: Many Things in Common - Mr. kaja-net.com