The United States also acquired a large number of complete V2 rockets. On Stalin's orders, the Soviet Union sent its best rocket engineers to this region to see what they could salvage for future weapons systems. Goddard had worked on developing solid-fuel rockets sinceand demonstrated a light battlefield rocket to the US Army Signal Corps only five days before the signing of the armistice that ended World War I.
Indeed, prior to the country lacked any civilian intelligence agency. Information was collected in an unsystematic way by the Office of Naval Intelligenceby U.
Army intelligence, and by the FBI. The information gathered was rarely shared with other government agencies and was sometimes not even provided to senior policy makers.
Roosevelt was not given sensitive information about Japan in the months before the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in December A similar office for this purpose, the Office of the Coordinator of Information, created in Julyhad floundered as the result of hostile pressure from the State Departmentthe military intelligence services, and the FBI.
Roosevelt described Donovan as a man who had new ideas a day, of which 95 were terrible—though he added that few men had 5 good ideas in their lifetimes. Donovan supported the use of exotic poisons against enemy targets and once proposed the use of bats to deliver incendiary weapons against Japan.
Among reports commissioned from the OSS were assessments of German industry and war-making capability and a psychological profile of German dictator Adolf Hitler that concluded that he would likely commit suicide should Germany be defeated.
Its successes notwithstanding, the OSS was dismantled at the conclusion of the war. In President Harry S. Trumanrecognizing the need for a coordinated postwar intelligence establishment, created by executive order a Central Intelligence Group and a National Intelligence Authority, both of which recruited key former members of the OSS.
As in the days of the OSS, there were problems of distrust and rivalry between the new civilian agencies and the military intelligence services and the FBI.
Given extensive power to conduct foreign intelligence operations, the CIA was charged with advising the NSC on intelligence matters, correlating and evaluating the intelligence activities of other government agencies, and carrying out other intelligence activities as the NSC might require.
The agency was popularly thought of as the U. Organization and responsibilities The CIA is headed by a director and a deputy director, only one of whom may be a military officer. Until the director of central intelligence DCI was responsible for managing all U.
By the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act ofa director and a deputy director of national intelligence, responsible for coordinating the activities of all U. DCIs have been drawn from various fields, including not only intelligence but also the military, politics, and business.
Some intelligence directors have played critical roles in shaping U. Dulles during the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration —61 and William Casey during the Ronald Reagan administration —89 —though others, particularly during the administration of Bill Clinton —have been less important in this respect.
Bush centre announcing the nomination of Gen. Hayden right as director of the Central Intelligence Agency, May 8, The Intelligence Directorate analyzes intelligence gathered by overt means from sources such as the news media and by covert means from agents in the field, satellite photographyand the interception of telephone, mobile phone, and other forms of communication.
Those analyses attempt to incorporate intelligence from all possible sources. During the Cold War most of that work was focused on the military and the military-industrial complex of the Soviet Union.
The Directorate of Operations is responsible for spying i. The Directorate of Science and Technology is responsible for keeping the agency abreast of scientific and technological advances, for carrying out technical operations e.
During the Cold Warmaterial gathered from aerial reconnaissance produced detailed information on issues as varied as the Soviet grain crop and the development of Soviet ballistic missiles.
Information obtained through those satellites was critical to the arms control process; indeed, agreements reached during the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks SALT in the s specifically mentioned the use of satellites to monitor the development of weapons.
The Directorate of Science and Technology has been instrumental in designing spy satellites and in intercepting the communications of other countries. It also contains the Office of Security, which is responsible for the security of personnel, facilities, and information as well as for uncovering spies within the CIA.
CIA data collection and analysis was important for arms control negotiations with the Soviet Union throughout the Cold War and for determining U. Aerial reconnaissance—first by plane and then by satellite—provided early warning of the deployment of Soviet missiles in Cuba and the development of new missiles in the Soviet Union.
In the early s the CIA briefly considered using illegal drugs to control foreign agents. The CIA also was unsuccessful in its multiple attempts to assassinate Cuban leader Fidel Castro in the s through agents recruited within the Cuban government as well as through contacts with organized crime figures see also Mafia in the United States.
Plots to kill or embarrass Castro included poisoning his cigars, lacing his cigars with a hallucinogenproviding him with exploding cigars, poisoning his wet suit Castro was an underwater enthusiastand administering drugs that would cause his beard and eyebrows to fall out.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union inthe CIA changed both its institutional structure and its mission. Whereas more than half its resources before had been devoted to activities aimed at the Soviet Union, in the post-Cold War era it increasingly targeted nonstate actors such as terrorists and international criminal organizations.
It also made significant efforts to collect and analyze information about the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Spy satellites that had been used exclusively for military purposes were sometimes used for other tasks, such as collecting evidence of ecological disasters and human rights abuses.
During the s the CIA supported U.Oct 14, · Watch video · The arms competition between the United States and the Soviet Union did not fit an action-reaction model very well.
There were long seeded differences between the United States and the Soviet Union over ideologies. In the Russian Revolution of the communists took power.
The United States and Britain were worried that the same thing might happen in their countries. The United States was a capitalist democracy while the Soviet Union was a communist authoritarian state.
c. The United States and the Soviet Union, as the two most powerful states at the end of World War II, were inevitably going to threaten each other's security.
The ideological struggle between communism (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world influence.
The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile crisis but never attacked one another. The Soviet Union and the Horn of Africa during the Cold War: Between Ideology and Pragmatism (The Harvard Cold War Studies Book Series) [Radoslav A.
Yordanov] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. At the height of the Cold War, Soviet ideologues, policymakers, diplomats.
An arms race denotes a rapid increase in the quantity or quality of instruments of military power by rival states in peacetime. The first modern arms race took.