After Rococo there arose in the late 18th century, in architectureand then in painting severe neo-classicismbest represented by such artists as David and his heir Ingres.
After Rococo there arose in the 19th century art 18th century, in architectureand then in painting severe neo-classicismbest represented by such artists as David and his heir Ingres. The idea that human beings are not above the forces of Nature is in contradiction to Ancient Greek and Renaissance ideals where mankind was above all things and owned his fate.
This thinking led romantic artists to depict the sublimeruined churches, shipwrecksmassacres and madness. Romantic painters turned landscape painting into a major genre, considered until then as a minor genre or as a decorative background for figure compositions. Important painters of that school include Thomas Cole.
Boudin was also an important influence on the young Claude Monetwhom in he introduced to Plein air painting. A major force in the turn towards Realism at mid-century was Gustave Courbet.
They eschewed allegory and narrative in favor of individualized responses to the modern world, sometimes painted with little or no preparatory study, relying on deftness of drawing and a highly chromatic pallette.
Manet, Degas, Renoir, Morisot, and Cassatt concentrated primarily on the human subject. Renoir, Morisot, and Cassatt turned to domestic life for inspiration, with Renoir focusing on the female nude.
Monet, Pissarro, and Sisley used the landscape as their primary motif, the transience of light and weather playing a major role in their work. While Sisley most closely adhered to the original principals of the impressionist perception of the landscape, Monet sought challenges in increasingly chromatic and changeable conditions, culminating in series of monumental works, and Pissarro adopted some of the experiments of Post-Impressionism.
The spell of Impressionism was felt throughout the world, and nowhere more profoundly than in the United States, where it became integral to the painting of American Impressionists such as Childe HassamJohn Twachtmanand Theodore Robinson.
It also exerted influence on painters who were not primarily impressionistic in theory, like the portrait and landscape painter John Singer Sargent.
At the same time in America there existed a native and nearly insular realism, as richly embodied in the figurative work of Thomas Eakins and the landscapes and seascapes of Winslow Homerboth of whose paintings were deeply invested in the solidity of natural forms.
The visionary landscape, a motive largely dependent on the ambiguity of the nocturne, found its advocates in Albert Pinkham Ryder and Ralph Blakelock.
Neoclassicism was the artistic component of the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenmentwhich was similarly idealistic. IngresCanovaand Jacques-Louis David are among the best-known neoclassicists. Just as Mannerism rejected Classicism, so did Romanticism reject the ideas of the Enlightenment and the aesthetic of the Neoclassicists.
Romantic art focused on the use of color and motion in order to portray emotion, but like classicism used Greek and Roman mythology and tradition as an important source of symbolism.
Another important aspect of Romanticism was its emphasis on nature and portraying the power and beauty of the natural world.
Romanticism was also a large literary movement, especially in poetry. Most artists attempted to take a centrist approach which adopted different features of Neoclassicist and Romanticist styles, in order to synthesize them. The different attempts took place within the French Academy, and collectively are called Academic art.
Adolphe William Bouguereau is considered a chief example of this stream of art.19th-Century Art 19th-Century Art Neoclassicism Romanticism Orientalism Realism Pre-Raphaelites Arts and Crafts Realism Impressionism Post-Impressionism Neo-Impressionism Pointillism Symbolism Art .
19th century art, 19th century painting, 19th century sculpture, 19th century printmaking The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world.
19th Century Art About In the West, the 19th century witnessed major social and technological upheavals, spurred in large part by the Industrial Revolution and correlating trends: urbanization, frequently poor working and living conditions, and territorial expansion by emerging global superpowers.
Nineteenth-century art. Art Ancient Near Eastern and ancient Egyptian art. Ancient Greek and Roman art.
Medieval and Byzantine art. Renaissance art. Baroque and Rococo. Nineteenth-century art. This is the currently selected item. Introduction to Twentieth-Century Art.
In the decades before World War I—a period dubbed the “Gilded Age” by author Mark Twain—artists such as Winslow Homer, John Singer Sargent, James McNeill Whistler, and Abbott Thayer captured the brilliance and wealth of turn-of-the-century society, bringing a new level of sophistication to American art.
19th-Century Art 19th-Century Art Neoclassicism Romanticism Orientalism Realism Pre-Raphaelites Arts and Crafts Realism Impressionism Post-Impressionism Neo-Impressionism Pointillism Symbolism Art .